Paper-based Microfluidic Valve (PBMV) 2-D Technology

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PBMV technology creates a fluidic diode, a component that only promotes fluid transport in one way, on paper or paper-like materials.

The fluidic diode consists of a group of hydrophilic patterns: a circle surrounded by an open ring. By combining the pattern and a surfactant, the diode only promotes fluid spreading from the circle to the ring. This function is demonstrated through two diodes oppositely configured in the figure above.

Lab-on-Paper Devices, 3-D Technology

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Lab-on-Paper devices are multilayer structures consisting of multiple fluidic diodes, inter-connected by sub-surface fluidic channels

These devices form can conduct ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assays)  by autonomously and sequentially transporting multiple biological reagents to the center spot located at its top layer. The unique fluid transport property of this platform is demonstrated in the figure above using dye-containing fluids.


US 8,945,485 (Issued February 3, 2015)
US 9,415,393
 (Issued August 16, 2016)
US 9,687,846 (Issued June 27, 2017)


1. Hong Chen, Mohammad Faghri and Constantine Anagnostopoulos, Paper-Based non-Mechanical Valves for Autonomous Multi-Reagent Lateral Flow Microfluidic Devices,” Proceeding of the 2014 IEEE-EMBS Healthcare Innovations and Point-of-Care Technologies Conference (HICPT’14) Seattle, WA, October 8-10, 2014

2. R. Gerbers, W. Foellscher, Hong Chen, C. Anagnostopoulos and M. Faghri, “A New Paper-Based Platform Technology for Point-of-Care Diagnostics,” Lab Chip, 2014, 14, 4042-4049

3. H. Chen, J. Cogswell, C. Anagnostopoulos and M. Faghri, “A Fluidic Diode, Valves, and a Sequential-loading Circuit Fabricated on Layered Paper,” Lab Chip, 2012, 12, 2909-29134.

4. W. Smith, N. Rahmani, A. Charbaji, N. Lemos, C. Anagnostopoulos, M. Faghri and Chungpyo Hong,   “A Fluidically Controlled Bi-Material Actuator for Automation of Paper-Based Assays,” Proceedings of the ISTEGIM, October 24-25, 2019 – Ettlingen, Germany

Narrated Power Point Presentation of the Lab-on-Paper

Platform Technology

Video below is showing the evolution of the signal at two test spots over time for two different device designs conducting ELISA autonomously.

One test spot is located on the op left corner and the other on the right top corner.